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when to remove these template messages This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably April This article's images may require adjustment of image placement formatting and size April Kingdom of Saudi Arabia المملكة العربية السعودية Arabic Al Mamlakah Al-ʾĀrabīyah As Saʿūdīyah Flag of Saudi Arabia Emblem of Saudi Arabia Flag Emblem Motto: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله "Lā ʾilāha ʾillāl–lāh Muhammadun rasūl allāh" "There is no god but God; Muhammad is the messenger of God "[ ][a] Shahada Anthem: السلام الملكي as an instrumental "as Salām al Malakiyy" "The Royal Salute" Location of Saudi Arabia Capital and largest city Riyadh ° ′N ° ′E Official languages Arabic[ ] Ethnic groups % Arab % Afro Arab Religion Sunni Islam Demonym Saudi Arabian Saudi informal Government Unitary Islamic absolute monarchy • King Salman bin Abdulaziz • Crown Prince Mohammad bin Nayef • Deputy Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman Legislature None Legislation passed by the Council of Ministers [b] Establishment • Kingdom founded September • Admitted to the United Nations October • Current constitution January Area • Total [ ] km sq mi th • Water % Population • estimate [ ] th • Density km sq mi th GDP PPP estimate • Total $ trillion[ ] th • Per capita $ [ ] th GDP nominal estimate • Total $ billion[ ] th • Per capita $ [ ] th HDI Increase [ ] very high · th Currency Saudi riyal SR SAR Time zone AST UTC Date format dd mm yyyy AH Drives on the right Calling code ISO code SA Internet TLD sa السعودية ^ Legislation is by king's decree The Consultative Assembly exists to advise the king Saudi Arabia[c] Listeni/ˌsɔːdiː əˈreɪbiə Listeni/ˌsaʊ officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia KSA [d] is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula with a land area of approximately km sq mi Saudi Arabia is geographically the fifth largest state in Asia and second largest state in the Arab world after Algeria Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north Kuwait to the northeast Qatar Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates to the east Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south It is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast and most of its terrain consists of arid desert and mountains The area of modern day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of four distinct regions: Hejaz Najd and parts of Eastern Arabia Al Ahsa and Southern Arabia 'Asir [ ] The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in by Ibn Saud He united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in with the capture of Riyadh the ancestral home of his family the House of Saud Saudi Arabia has since been an absolute monarchy effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamic lines [ ][ ] The ultraconservative Wahhabi religious movement within Sunni Islam has been called "the predominant feature of Saudi culture" with its global spread largely financed by the oil and gas trade [ ][ ] Saudi Arabia is sometimes called "the Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Al Masjid al Haram in Mecca and Al Masjid an Nabawi in Medina the two holiest places in Islam The state has a total population of million of which million are Saudi nationals and million are foreigners [ ] The state's official language is Arabic Petroleum was discovered on March and followed up by several other finds in the Eastern Province [ ] Saudi Arabia has since become the world's largest oil producer and exporter controlling the world's second largest oil reserves and the sixth largest gas reserves [ ] The kingdom is categorized as a World Bank high income economy with a high Human Development Index[ ] and is the only Arab country to be part of the G major economies [ ] However the economy of Saudi Arabia is the least diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council lacking any significant service or production sector apart from the extraction of resources [ ] The state has attracted criticism for its treatment of women and use of capital punishment [ ] Saudi Arabia is a monarchical autocracy [ ][ ] has the fourth highest military expenditure in the world[ ][ ] and SIPRI found that Saudi Arabia was the world's second largest arms importer in – [ ] Saudi Arabia is considered a regional and middle power [ ] In addition to the GCC it is an active member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and OPEC [ ] Contents Etymology History Before the foundation of Saudi Arabia Pre Islamic Arabia Al Magar Civilization Dilmun Civilization Thamud Civilization Nabatean Kingdom Kingdom of Lihyan Kindah Kingdom Middle Ages and rise of Islam Ottoman Hejaz Foundation of the Saud dynasty Post unification Politics Monarchy and royal family Al ash Sheikh and role of the ulema Legal system Human rights Foreign relations Military Geography Animals Administrative divisions Cities Economy Agriculture Water supply and sanitation Demographics Languages Religions Foreigners Monarchs –present Crown Princes –present Second Deputy Prime Minister Second in line – Deputy Crown Prince Second in line –present Culture Religion in society Islamic heritage sites Dress Arts and entertainment Sport Cuisine Women Education Health care See also Notes References Bibliography External links Etymology See also: Arab etymology Following the unification of the Hejaz and Nejd kingdoms the new state was named al Mamlakah al-ʻArabīyah as Suʻūdīyah a transliteration of المملكة العربية السعودية in Arabic by royal decree on September by its founder Abdulaziz Al Saud Ibn Saud Although this is normally translated as "the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" in English[ ] it literally means "the Saudi Arab kingdom" [ ] or "the Arab Saudi Kingdom" [ ] The word "Saudi" is derived from the element as Suʻūdīyah in the Arabic name of the country which is a type of adjective known as a nisba formed from the dynastic name of the Saudi royal family the Al Saud آل سعود Its inclusion expresses the view that the country is the personal possession of the royal family [ ][ ] Al Saud is an Arabic name formed by adding the word Al meaning "family of" or "House of" [ ] to the personal name of an ancestor In the case of the Al Saud this is the father of the dynasty's th century founder Muhammad bin Saud [ ] History Main article: History of Saudi Arabia There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about years ago [ ] It is now believed that the first modern humans to spread east across Asia left Africa about years ago across the Bab el Mandib connecting Horn of Africa and Arabia [ ] Red sea crossing Before the foundation of Saudi Arabia In ancient times the Arabian peninsula served as a corridor for trade and exhibited several civilizations The history before the foundation of Saudi Arabia divided into two phases: pre Islam and after Islam Pre Islamic Arabia Main article: Pre Islamic Arabia Religions of the people of the Arabian Peninsula before Islam consisted of indigenous polytheistic beliefs Arabian Christianity Nestorian Christianity Judaism and Zoroastrianism [ ] Al Magar Civilization Main article: Al Magar Al Magar is prehistoric civilisation that was founded in the center of the Arabian Peninsula particularly in Najd Al Magar is where the first domestication of animals occurred particularly the horse during the Neolithic period [ ] Jubail Church is a th century church building near Jubail Eastern Province discovered in It originally belonged to the Church of the East an ancient Nestorian branch of Eastern Christianity in the Middle East It is one of the oldest churches in the world [ ] Aramaic inscription from the ancient city of Tayma th century BC Correspondence between Ilī ippašra the governor of Dilmun and Enlil kidinni the governor of Nippur ca BC Fragment of a wall painting showing a Kindite king st century CE The ancient archaeological site of Mada'in Saleh Head of a man from the ancient capital Qaryat al Faw st century BCE Dilmun Civilization Main article: Dilmun Dilmun is one of the ancient civilizations in the Middle East and in the Arabian Peninsula [ ][ ] It was a major trading centre and at the height of its power controlled the Persian Gulf trading routes [ ][ ] The Dilmun encompassed the east large side of the Arabian Peninsula particularly in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia One of the earliest inscriptions naming Dilmun is that of King Ur Nanshe of Lagash c BC discovered in a door socket: "The ships of Dilmun brought him wood as tribute from foreign lands[ ] Thamud Civilization Main article: Thamud Thamud is the name of an ancient civilization in the Hejaz known from the st millennium BC to near the time of Muhammad More than Thamudic inscriptions were recorded in south west Saudi Arabia [ ] Nabatean Kingdom Main article: Nabataeans The Nabataeans also Nabateans /ˌnæbəˈtiːənz ; Arabic: الأنباط‎‎ al-ʾAnbāṭ  compare to Ancient Greek: Ναβαταίος Latin: Nabatæus were an Arab[ ] people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant and whose settlements most prominently the assumed capital city of Raqmu now called Petra [ ] in CE – c gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Arabia and Syria from the Euphrates to the Red Sea Their loosely controlled trading network which centered on strings of oases that they controlled where agriculture was intensively practiced in limited areas and on the routes that linked them had no securely defined boundaries in the surrounding desert Trajan conquered the Nabataean kingdom annexing it to the Roman Empire where their individual culture easily identified by their characteristic finely potted painted ceramics was adopted into the larger Greco Roman culture They were later converted to Christianity Jane Taylor a writer describes them as "one of the most gifted peoples of the ancient world" [ ] Kingdom of Lihyan Main article: Lihyan The kingdom of Lihyan Arabic: لحيان or Dedan is an Ancient North Arabian kingdom It was located in northwestern of the now day Saudi Arabia and is known for its Ancient North Arabian inscriptions dating to ca the th to th centuries BC [ ] Kindah Kingdom Main article: Kindah Kindah was a tribal kingdom that was established in the Najd in central Arabia Its kings exercised an influence over a number of associated tribes more by personal prestige than by coercive settled authority Their first capital was Qaryat Dhāt Kāhil today known as Qaryat al Fāw [ ] Middle Ages and rise of Islam Shortly before the advent of Islam apart from urban trading settlements such as Mecca and Medina much of what was to become Saudi Arabia was populated by nomadic pastoral tribal societies [ ] The Islamic prophet Muhammad however was born in Mecca in about A D In the early th century Muhammad united the various tribes of the peninsula and created a single Islamic religious polity [ ] Following his death in his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory from the Iberian Peninsula in west to modern day Pakistan in east in a matter of decades Arabia soon became a more politically peripheral region of the Muslim world as the focus shifted to the vast and newly conquered lands [ ] At its greatest extent the Umayyad Caliphate covered km sq mi [ ] and million people % of the world's population [ ] making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population It was also larger than any previous empire in history Arab dynasties originating from modern day Saudi Arabia Hejaz in particular founded the Rashidun – Umayyad – Abbasid – and the Fatimid caliphates [ ][ ][ ][ ][ ] The Battle of Badr March CE From the th century to the early th century Mecca and Medina were under the control of a local Arab ruler known as the Sharif of Mecca but at most times the Sharif owed allegiance to the ruler of one of the major Islamic empires based in Baghdad Cairo or Istanbul Most of the remainder of what became Saudi Arabia reverted to traditional tribal rule [ ][ ] For much of the th century the Isma'ili Shi'ite Qarmatians were the most powerful force in the Persian Gulf In the Qarmatians pillaged Mecca outraging the Muslim world particularly with their theft of the Black Stone [ ] In an Arab Sheikh named Abdullah bin Ali Al Uyuni defeated the Qarmatians in Bahrain and Al Hasa with the help of the Great Seljuq Empire and founded the Uyunid dynasty [ ][ ] The Uyunid Emirate later underwent expansion with its territory stretching from Najd to the Syrian desert [ ] They were overthrown by the Usfurids in [ ] Ufsurid rule was weakened after Persian rulers of Hormuz captured Bahrain and Qatif in [ ] The vassals of Ormuz the Shia Jarwanid dynasty came to rule eastern Arabia in the th century [ ][ ] The Jabrids took control of the region after overthrowing the Jarwanids in the th century and clashed with Hormuz for more than decades over the region for its economic revenues until finally agreeing to pay tribute in [ ] Al Muntafiq tribe later took over the region and came under Ottoman suzerainty The Bani Khalid tribe later revolted against them in th century and took control [ ] Their rule extended from Iraq to Oman at its height and they too came under Ottoman suzerainty [ ][ ][ ] Ottoman Hejaz Main article: Ottoman era in the history of Saudi Arabia In the th century the Ottomans added the Red Sea and Persian Gulf coast the Hejaz Asir and Al Ahsa to the Empire and claimed suzerainty over the interior One reason was to thwart Portuguese attempts to attack the Red Sea hence the Hejaz and the Indian Ocean [ ] Ottoman degree of control over these lands varied over the next four centuries with the fluctuating strength or weakness of the Empire's central authority [ ] Foundation of the Saud dynasty See also: Unification of Saudi Arabia The Arabian Peninsula in The emergence of what was to become the Saudi royal family known as the Al Saud began in Nejd in central Arabia in when Muhammad bin Saud founder of the dynasty joined forces with the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab [ ] founder of the Wahhabi movement a strict puritanical form of Sunni Islam [ ] This alliance formed in the th century provided the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion and remains the basis of Saudi Arabian dynastic rule today [ ] The first "Saudi state" established in in the area around Riyadh rapidly expanded and briefly controlled most of the present day territory of Saudi Arabia [ ] but was destroyed by by the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt Mohammed Ali Pasha [ ] A much smaller second "Saudi state" located mainly in Nejd was established in Throughout the rest of the th century the Al Saud contested control of the interior of what was to become Saudi Arabia with another Arabian ruling family the Al Rashid By the Al Rashid were victorious and the Al Saud were driven into exile in Kuwait [ ] Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud the first king of Saudi Arabia At the beginning of the th century the Ottoman Empire continued to control or have a suzerainty over most of the peninsula Subject to this suzerainty Arabia was ruled by a patchwork of tribal rulers [ ][ ] with the Sharif of Mecca having pre eminence and ruling the Hejaz [ ] In Abdul Rahman's son Abdul Aziz—later to be known as Ibn Saud—recaptured control of Riyadh bringing the Al Saud back to Nejd [ ] Ibn Saud gained the support of the Ikhwan a tribal army inspired by Wahhabism and led by Faisal Al Dawish and which had grown quickly after its foundation in [ ] With the aid of the Ikhwan Ibn Saud captured Al Ahsa from the Ottomans in In with the encouragement and support of Britain which was fighting the Ottomans in World War I the Sharif of Mecca Hussein bin Ali led a pan Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire to create a united Arab state [ ] Although the Arab Revolt of to failed in its objective the Allied victory in World War I resulted in the end of Ottoman suzerainty and control in Arabia [ ] Ibn Saud avoided involvement in the Arab Revolt and instead continued his struggle with the Al Rashid Following the latter's final defeat he took the title Sultan of Nejd in With the help of the Ikhwan the Hejaz was conquered in – and on January Ibn Saud declared himself King of the Hejaz [ ] A year later he added the title of King of Nejd For the next five years he administered the two parts of his dual kingdom as separate units [ ] After the conquest of the Hejaz the Ikhwan leadership's objective switched to expansion of the Wahhabist realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan Iraq and Kuwait and began raiding those territories This met with Ibn Saud's opposition as he recognized the danger of a direct conflict with the British At the same time the Ikhwan became disenchanted with Ibn Saud's domestic policies which appeared to favor modernization and the increase in the number of non Muslim foreigners in the country As a result they turned against Ibn Saud and after a two year struggle were defeated in at the Battle of Sabilla where their leaders were massacred [ ] In the two kingdoms of the Hejaz and Nejd were united as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [ ] Post unification Main article: Modern history of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia political map The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after unification in The new kingdom was reliant on limited agriculture and pilgrimage revenues [ ] In vast reserves of oil were discovered in the Al Ahsa region along the coast of the Persian Gulf and full scale development of the oil fields began in under the US controlled Aramco Arabian American Oil Company Oil provided Saudi Arabia with economic prosperity and substantial political leverage internationally [ ] Cultural life rapidly developed primarily in the Hejaz which was the center for newspapers and radio However the large influx of foreign workers in Saudi Arabia in the oil industry increased the pre existing propensity for xenophobia At the same time the government became increasingly wasteful and extravagant By the s this had led to large governmental deficits and excessive foreign borrowing [ ] In Saud of Saudi Arabia succeeded as the king of Saudi Arabia on his father's death until when he was deposed in favor of his half brother Faisal of Saudi Arabia after an intense rivalry fueled by doubts in the royal family over Saud's competence In Saudi Arabia gained a % control in Aramco thereby decreasing US control over Saudi oil In Saudi Arabia led an oil boycott against the Western countries that supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War against Egypt and Syria Oil prices quadrupled [ ] In Faisal was assassinated by his nephew Prince Faisal bin Musaid and was succeeded by his half brother King Khalid [ ] Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways map By Saudi Arabia had become the largest oil producer in the world [ ] Khalid's reign saw economic and social development progress at an extremely rapid rate transforming the infrastructure and educational system of the country;[ ] in foreign policy close ties with the US were developed [ ] In two events occurred which greatly concerned the government [ ] and had a long term influence on Saudi foreign and domestic policy The first was the Iranian Islamic Revolution It was feared that the country's Shi'ite minority in the Eastern Province which is also the location of the oil fields might rebel under the influence of their Iranian co religionists There were several anti government uprisings in the region such as the Qatif Uprising [ ] The second event was the Grand Mosque Seizure in Mecca by Islamist extremists The militants involved were in part angered by what they considered to be the corruption and un Islamic nature of the Saudi government [ ] The government regained control of the mosque after days and those captured were executed Part of the response of the royal family was to enforce a much stricter observance of traditional religious and social norms in the country for example the closure of cinemas and to give the Ulema a greater role in government [ ] Neither entirely succeeded as Islamism continued to grow in strength [ ] Dammam No the first commercial oil well in Saudi Arabia struck oil on March In Saudi Arabia bought out the American interests in Aramco [ ] King Khalid died of a heart attack in June He was succeeded by his brother King Fahd who added the title "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" to his name in in response to considerable fundamentalist pressure to avoid use of "majesty" in association with anything except God Fahd continued to develop close relations with the United States and increased the purchase of American and British military equipment [ ] The vast wealth generated by oil revenues was beginning to have an even greater impact on Saudi society It led to rapid technological but not cultural modernisation urbanization mass public education and the creation of new media This and the presence of increasingly large numbers of foreign workers greatly affected traditional Saudi norms and values Although there was dramatic change in the social and economic life of the country political power continued to be monopolized by the royal family[ ] leading to discontent among many Saudis who began to look for wider participation in government [ ] In the s Saudi Arabia spent $ billion in support of Saddam Hussein in the Iran–Iraq War [ ] However Saudi Arabia condemned the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in and asked the US to intervene [ ] King Fahd allowed American and coalition troops to be stationed in Saudi Arabia He invited the Kuwaiti government and many of its citizens to stay in Saudi Arabia but expelled citizens of Yemen and Jordan because of their governments' support of Iraq In Saudi Arabian forces were involved both in bombing raids on Iraq and in the land invasion that helped to liberate Kuwait Saudi Arabia's relations with the West began to cause growing concern among some of the ulema and students of sharia law and was one of the issues that led to an increase in Islamist terrorism in Saudi Arabia as well as Islamist terrorist attacks in Western countries by Saudi nationals Osama bin Laden was a Saudi national until stripped of his nationality in and was responsible for the U S embassy bombings in East Africa and the USS Cole bombing near the port of Aden Yemen of the terrorists involved in September attacks in New York City Washington D C and near Shanksville Pennsylvania were Saudi nationals [ ] Many Saudis who did not support the Islamist terrorists were nevertheless deeply unhappy with the government's policies [ ] Oil and gas pipelines in the Middle East Islamism was not the only source of hostility to the government Although now extremely wealthy Saudi Arabia's economy was near stagnant High taxes and a growth in unemployment have contributed to discontent and has been reflected in a rise in civil unrest and discontent with the royal family In response a number of limited "reforms" were initiated by King Fahd In March he introduced the "Basic Law" which emphasised the duties and responsibilities of a ruler In December the Consultative Council was inaugurated It is composed of a chairman and members—all chosen by the King The King's intent was to respond to dissent while making as few actual changes in the status quo as possible [citation needed] Fahd made it clear that he did not have democracy in mind: "A system based on elections is not consistent with our Islamic creed which [approves of] government by consultation [shūrā] "[ ] In Fahd suffered a debilitating stroke and the Crown Prince Abdullah assumed the role of de facto regent taking on the day to day running of the country However his authority was hindered by conflict with Fahd's full brothers known with Fahd as the "Sudairi Seven" [ ] From the s signs of discontent continued and included in and a series of bombings and armed violence in Riyadh Jeddah Yanbu and Khobar [ ] In February–April the first ever nationwide municipal elections were held in Saudi Arabia Women were not allowed to take part in the poll [ ] In King Fahd died and was succeeded by Abdullah who continued the policy of minimum reform and clamping down on protests The king introduced a number of economic reforms aimed at reducing the country's reliance on oil revenue: limited deregulation encouragement of foreign investment and privatization In February Abdullah announced a series of governmental changes to the judiciary armed forces and various ministries to modernize these institutions including the replacement of senior appointees in the judiciary and the Mutaween religious police with more moderate individuals and the appointment of the country's first female deputy minister [ ] On January hundreds of protesters gathered in the city of Jeddah in a rare display of criticism against the city's poor infrastructure after deadly floods swept through the city killing eleven people [ ] Police stopped the demonstration after about minutes and arrested to people [ ] Since Saudi Arabia has been affected by its own Arab Spring protests [ ] In response King Abdullah announced on February a series of benefits for citizens amounting to $ billion of which $ billion was earmarked for housing [ ] No political reforms were announced as part of the package though some prisoners indicted for financial crimes were pardoned [ ] On March the same year King Abdullah announced a package of $ billion which included new homes to a cost of $ billion in addition to creating new security jobs [ ][ ] Although male only municipal elections were held on September [ ][ ] Abdullah allowed women to vote and be elected in the municipal elections and also to be nominated to the Shura Council [ ] Politics Main article: Politics of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy [ ] However according to the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia adopted by royal decree in the king must comply with Sharia Islamic law and the Quran while the Quran and the Sunnah the traditions of Muhammad are declared to be the country's constitution [ ] No political parties or national elections are permitted [ ] Critics regard it as a totalitarian dictatorship [ ] The Economist rates the Saudi government as the fifth most authoritarian government out of rated in its Democracy Index [ ] and Freedom House gives it its lowest "Not Free" rating " =best =worst" for [ ] In the absence of national elections and political parties [ ] politics in Saudi Arabia takes place in two distinct arenas: within the royal family the Al Saud and between the royal family and the rest of Saudi society [ ] Outside of the Al Saud participation in the political process is limited to a relatively small segment of the population and takes the form of the royal family consulting with the ulema tribal sheikhs and members of important commercial families on major decisions [ ] This process is not reported by the Saudi media [ ] By custom all males of full age have a right to petition the king directly through the traditional tribal meeting known as the majlis [ ] In many ways the approach to government differs little from the traditional system of tribal rule Tribal identity remains strong and outside of the royal family political influence is frequently determined by tribal affiliation with tribal sheikhs maintaining a considerable degree of influence over local and national events [ ] As mentioned earlier in recent years there have been limited steps to widen political participation such as the establishment of the Consultative Council in the early s and the National Dialogue Forum in [ ] The rule of the Al Saud faces political opposition from four sources: Sunni Islamist activism; liberal critics; the Shi'ite minority—particularly in the Eastern Province; and long standing tribal and regionalist particularistic opponents for example in the Hejaz [ ] Of these the Islamic activists have been the most prominent threat to the government and have in recent years perpetrated a number of violent or terrorist acts in the country [ ] However open protest against the government even if peaceful is not tolerated Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that effectively bans women from driving; although there is no written law to that effect in practice women are hindered from obtaining the locally issued licenses required to drive [ ] On September Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah announced that women will have the right to stand and vote in future local elections and join the advisory Shura council as full members [ ] Monarchy and royal family The king combines legislative executive and judicial functions[ ] and royal decrees form the basis of the country's legislation [ ] The king is also the prime minister and presides over the Council of Ministers Majlis al Wuzarāʾ which comprises the first and second deputy prime ministers and other ministers The royal family dominates the political system The family's vast numbers allow it to control most of the kingdom's important posts and to have an involvement and presence at all levels of government [ ] The number of princes is estimated to be at least with most power and influence being wielded by the or so male descendants of Ibn Saud [ ] The key ministries are generally reserved for the royal family [ ] as are the thirteen regional governorships [ ] Long term political and government appointments have resulted in the creation of "power fiefdoms" for senior princes [ ] such as those of King Abdullah who had been Commander of the National Guard since until when he appointed his son to replace him [ ] former Crown Prince Sultan Minister of Defence and Aviation from to his death in former crown prince Prince Nayef who was the Minister of Interior from to his death in Prince Saud who had been Minister of Foreign Affairs since [ ] and current King Salman who was Minister of Defense and Aviation before he was crown prince and Governor of the Riyadh Province from to [ ] The current Minister of Defense is Prince Mohammad bin Salman the son of King Salman and Deputy Crown Prince [ ] The royal family is politically divided by factions based on clan loyalties personal ambitions and ideological differences [ ] The most powerful clan faction is known as the 'Sudairi Seven' comprising the late King Fahd and his full brothers and their descendants [ ] Ideological divisions include issues over the speed and direction of reform [ ] and whether the role of the ulema should be increased or reduced There were divisions within the family over who should succeed to the throne after the accession or earlier death of Prince Sultan [ ][ ] When prince Sultan died before ascending to the throne on October King Abdullah appointed Prince Nayef as crown prince [ ] The following year Prince Nayef also died before ascending to the throne [ ] King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud inherited power in The Saudi government and the royal family have often over many years been accused of corruption [ ] In a country that is said to "belong" to the royal family and is named for them [ ] the lines between state assets and the personal wealth of senior princes are blurred [ ] The extent of corruption has been described as systemic[ ] and endemic [ ] and its existence was acknowledged[ ] and defended[ ] by Prince Bandar bin Sultan a senior member of the royal family[ ] in an interview in [ ] Although corruption allegations have often been limited to broad undocumented accusations [ ] specific allegations were made in when it was claimed that the British defence contractor BAE Systems had paid Prince Bandar US$ billion in bribes relating to the Al Yamamah arms deal [ ] Prince Bandar denied the allegations [ ] Investigations by both US and UK authorities resulted in in plea bargain agreements with the company by which it paid $ million in fines but did not admit to bribery [ ] Transparency International in its annual Corruption Perceptions Index for gave Saudi Arabia a score of on a scale from to where is "highly corrupt" and is "highly clean" [ ] Saudi Arabia has undergone a process of political and social reform such as to increase public transparency and good governance However nepotism and patronage are widespread when doing business in the country The enforcement of the anti corruption laws is selective and public officials engage in corruption with impunity There has been mounting pressure to reform and modernize the royal family's rule an agenda championed by King Abdullah both before and after his accession in The creation of the Consultative Council in the early s did not satisfy demands for political participation and in an annual National Dialogue Forum was announced that would allow selected professionals and intellectuals to publicly debate current national issues within certain prescribed parameters In the first municipal elections were held In the Allegiance Council was created to regulate the succession [ ] In the king made significant personnel changes to the government by appointing reformers to key positions and the first woman to a ministerial post [ ] However the changes have been criticized as being too slow or merely cosmetic [ ] Al ash Sheikh and role of the ulema Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate May Saudi Arabia is almost unique in giving the ulema the body of Islamic religious leaders and jurists a direct role in government [ ] The preferred ulema are of the Salafi persuasion The ulema have also been a key influence in major government decisions for example the imposition of the oil embargo in and the invitation to foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in [ ] In addition they have had a major role in the judicial and education systems[ ] and a monopoly of authority in the sphere of religious and social morals [ ] By the s as a result of oil wealth and the modernization of the country initiated by King Faisal important changes to Saudi society were under way and the power of the ulema was in decline [ ] However this changed following the seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca in by Islamist radicals [ ] The government's response to the crisis included strengthening the ulema's powers and increasing their financial support:[ ] in particular they were given greater control over the education system[ ] and allowed to enforce stricter observance of Wahhabi rules of moral and social behaviour [ ] After his accession to the throne in King Abdullah took steps to reduce the powers of the ulema for instance transferring control over girls' education to the Ministry of Education [ ] The ulema have historically been led by the Al ash Sheikh [ ] the country's leading religious family [ ] The Al ash Sheikh are the descendants of Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab the th century founder of the Wahhabi form of Sunni Islam which is today dominant in Saudi Arabia [ ] The family is second in prestige only to the Al Saud the royal family [ ] with whom they formed a "mutual support pact"[ ] and power sharing arrangement nearly years ago [ ] The pact which persists to this day [ ] is based on the Al Saud maintaining the Al ash Sheikh's authority in religious matters and upholding and propagating Wahhabi doctrine In return the Al ash Sheikh support the Al Saud's political authority[ ] thereby using its religious moral authority to legitimize the royal family's rule [ ] Although the Al ash Sheikh's domination of the ulema has diminished in recent decades [ ] they still hold the most important religious posts and are closely linked to the Al Saud by a high degree of intermarriage [ ] Legal system Main article: Legal system of Saudi Arabia See also: Capital punishment in Saudi Arabia and Public executions in Saudi Arabia Verses from the Quran The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document [ ] The primary source of law is the Islamic Sharia derived from the teachings of the Qur'an and the Sunnah the traditions of the Prophet [ ] Saudi Arabia is unique among modern Muslim states in that Sharia is not codified and there is no system of judicial precedent giving judges the power to use independent legal reasoning to make a decision Saudi judges tend to follow the principles of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence or fiqh found in pre modern texts[ ] and noted for its literalist interpretation of the Qur'an and hadith [ ] Because the judge is empowered to disregard previous judgments either his own or of other judges and may apply his personal interpretation of Sharia to any particular case divergent judgements arise even in apparently identical cases [ ] making predictability of legal interpretation difficult [ ] The Sharia court system constitutes the basic judiciary of Saudi Arabia and its judges qadi and lawyers form part of the ulema the country's Islamic scholars Royal decrees are the other main source of law; but are referred to as regulations rather than laws because they are subordinate to the Sharia [ ] Royal decrees supplement Sharia in areas such as labor commercial and corporate law Additionally traditional tribal law and custom remain significant [ ] Extra Sharia government tribunals usually handle disputes relating to specific royal decrees [ ] Final appeal from both Sharia courts and government tribunals is to the King and all courts and tribunals follow Sharia rules of evidence and procedure [ ] The Saudi system of justice has been criticized for its "ultra puritanical judges" who are often harsh in their sentencing with beheading for the crime of witchcraft but also sometimes overly lenient for cases of rape or wife beating and slow for example leaving thousands of abandoned women unable to secure a divorce [ ][ ] The system has also been criticized for being arcane [ ] lacking in some of the safeguards of justice and unable to deal with the modern world [ ] In King Abdullah issued royal decrees reforming the judiciary and creating a new court system [ ] and in the King made a number of significant changes to the judiciary's personnel at the most senior level by bringing in a younger generation [ ] Deera Square central Riyadh Known locally as "Chop chop square" it is the location of public beheadings [ ] Capital and physical punishments imposed by Saudi courts such as beheading stoning to death amputation crucifixion and lashing as well as the sheer number of executions have been strongly criticized [ ] The death penalty can be imposed for a wide range of offences including murder rape armed robbery repeated drug use apostasy adultery witchcraft and sorcery and can be carried out by beheading with a sword stoning or firing squad followed by crucifixion [ ][ ][ ] The reported executions between and were all carried out by public beheading The last reported execution for sorcery took place in September [ ] Although repeated theft can be punishable by amputation of the right hand only one instance of judicial amputation was reported between and Homosexual acts are punishable by flogging or death [ ][ ][ ] Atheism or "calling into question the fundamentals of the Islamic religion on which this country is based" is considered a terrorist crime [ ] Lashings are a common form of punishment[ ] and are often imposed for offences against religion and public morality such as drinking alcohol and neglect of prayer and fasting obligations [ ] Retaliatory punishments or Qisas are practised: for instance an eye can be surgically removed at the insistence of a victim who lost his own eye [ ] Families of someone unlawfully killed can choose between demanding the death penalty or granting clemency in return for a payment of diyya blood money by the perpetrator [ ] Human rights Main article: Human rights in Saudi Arabia In Saudi Arabian writer Raif Badawi was sentenced to years in prison and lashes for "insulting Islam" Western based organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch condemn both the Saudi criminal justice system and its severe punishments There are no jury trials in Saudi Arabia and courts observe few formalities [ ] Human Rights Watch in a report noted that a criminal procedure code had been introduced for the first time in but it lacked some basic protections and in any case had been routinely ignored by judges Those arrested are often not informed of the crime of which they are accused or given access to a lawyer and are subject to abusive treatment and torture if they do not confess At trial there is a presumption of guilt and the accused is often unable to examine witnesses and evidence or present a legal defense Most trials are held in secret [ ] An example of sentencing is that UK pensioner and cancer victim Karl Andree aged faced lashes for home brewing alcohol [ ] He was later released due to intervention by British government [ ] Saudi Arabia is widely accused of having one of the worst human rights records in the world Human rights issues that have attracted strong criticism include the extremely disadvantaged position of women see Women below capital punishment for homosexuality [ ] religious discrimination the lack of religious freedom and the activities of the religious police see Religion below [ ] Between and Saudi Arabia acceded to four UN human rights conventions and in the government approved the establishment of the National Society for Human Rights NSHR staffed by government employees to monitor their implementation To date the activities of the NSHR have been limited and doubts remain over its neutrality and independence [ ] Last known photo of Dina Ali left April a year old Saudi woman who attempted to escape Saudi guardianship laws [ ] Saudi Arabia remains one of the very few countries in the world not to accept the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights In response to the continuing criticism of its human rights record the Saudi government points to the special Islamic character of the country and asserts that this justifies a different social and political order [ ] The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom had unsuccessfully[ ] urged President Barack Obama to raise human rights concerns with King Abdullah on his March visit to the Kingdom especially the imprisonments of Sultan Hamid Marzooq al Enezi Saud Falih Awad al Enezi and Raif Badawi [ ] Saudi Arabia also conducts about executions per week mainly for murder and drug smuggling although there are people who have been executed for deserting Islam and crimes against the Faisal bin Musaid [ ] The method of execution is normally beheading in public [ ] For example Ali Mohammed Baqir al Nimr was arrested in when he was years old for taking part in an anti government protests in Saudi Arabia during the Arab Spring [ ] In May Ali al Nimr was sentenced to be publicly beheaded and crucified [ ] In the government deported thousands of non Saudis many of them who were working illegally in the country or had overstayed their visas Many reports abound of foreigner workers being tortured either by employers or others [ ] This resulted in many basic services suffering from a lack of workers as many Saudi Arabian citizens are not keen on working in blue collar jobs [ ] Saudi Arabia has a "Counter Radicalization Program" the purpose of which is to "combat the spread and appeal of extremist ideologies among the general populous" and to "instill the true values of the Islamic faith such as tolerance and moderation "[ ] This "tolerance and moderation" has been called into question by the Baltimore Sun based on the reports from Amnesty International regarding Raif Badawi [ ] and in the case of a man from Hafr al Batin sentenced to death for rejecting Islam [ ] In September Faisal bin Hassan Trad Saudi Arabia's ambassador to the UN in Geneva has been elected Chair of the United Nations Human Rights Council panel that appoints independent experts [ ] In January Saudi Arabia executed the prominent Shia cleric Sheikh Nimr who had called for pro democracy demonstrations and for free elections in Saudi Arabia [ ] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia King Salman with U S President Barack Obama Riyadh January Saudi Arabia joined the UN in [ ][ ] and is a founding member of the Arab League Gulf Cooperation Council Muslim World League and the Organization of the Islamic Conference now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation [ ] It plays a prominent role in the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank and in joined the World Trade Organization [ ] Saudi Arabia supports the intended formation of the Arab Customs Union in and an Arab common market[ ] by as announced at the Arab League summit [ ] Since as a founding member of OPEC its oil pricing policy has been generally to stabilize the world oil market and try to moderate sharp price movements so as to not jeopardise the Western economies [ ][ ] Between the mid s and Saudi Arabia expended over $ billion in "overseas development aid" However there is evidence that the vast majority was in fact spent on propagating and extending the influence of Wahhabism at the expense of other forms of Islam [ ] There has been an intense debate over whether Saudi aid and Wahhabism has fomented extremism in recipient countries [ ] The two main allegations are that by its nature Wahhabism encourages intolerance and promotes terrorism [ ] Counting only the non Muslim majority countries Saudi Arabia has paid for the construction of mosques Islamic centres colleges and schools [ ] Saudi Arabia and the United States are strategic allies [ ][ ] and since President Barack Obama took office in the U S has sold $ billion in arms to Saudi Arabia [ ][ ] In the first decade of the st century the Saudi Arabia paid approximately $ million to American firms to lobby the U S government [ ] The relations with the U S became strained following [ ] American politicians and media accused the Saudi government of supporting terrorism and tolerating a jihadist culture [ ] Indeed Osama bin Laden and fifteen out of the nineteen hijackers were from Saudi Arabia;[ ] in ISIL occupied Raqqa in mid all judges were Saudi [ ] According to former U S Secretary of State Hillary Clinton "Saudi Arabia remains a critical financial support base for al Qaida the Taliban LeT and other terrorist groups Donors in Saudi Arabia constitute the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide "[ ] Former CIA director James Woolsey described it as "the soil in which Al Qaeda and its sister terrorist organizations are flourishing "[ ] The Saudi government denies these claims or that it exports religious or cultural extremism [ ] In April Saudi Arabia has threatened to sell off $ billion in Treasury securities and other U S assets if Congress passes a bill that would allow the Saudi government to be sued over [ ] Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi King The Kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs" "[ ] In the Arab and Muslim worlds Saudi Arabia is considered to be pro Western and pro American [ ] and it is certainly a long term ally of the United States [ ] However this[ ] and Saudi Arabia's role in the Persian Gulf War particularly the stationing of U S troops on Saudi soil from prompted the development of a hostile Islamist response internally [ ] As a result Saudi Arabia has to some extent distanced itself from the U S and for example refused to support or to participate in the U S led invasion of Iraq in [ ] The consequences of the invasion and the Arab Spring led to increasing alarm within the Saudi monarchy over the rise of Iran's influence in the region [ ] These fears were reflected in comments of King Abdullah [ ] who privately urged the United States to attack Iran and "cut off the head of the snake" [ ] The tentative rapprochement between the US and Iran that began in secret in [ ] was said to be feared by the Saudis [ ] and during the run up to the widely welcomed deal on Iran's nuclear programme that capped the first stage of US–Iranian détente Robert Jordan who was U S ambassador to Riyadh from to said "[t]he Saudis' worst nightmare would be the [Obama] administration striking a grand bargain with Iran "[ ] A trip to Saudi by US President Barack Obama in included discussions of US–Iran relations though these failed to resolve Riyadh's concerns [ ] In order to protect the house of Khalifa the monarchs of Bahrain Saudi Arabia invaded Bahrain by sending military troops to quell the uprising of Bahraini people on March [ ] The Saudi government considered the two month uprising as a "security threat" posed by the Shia who represent the majority of Bahrain population [ ] Foreign Minister Adel al Jubeir with British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson in London October According to the Iraqi prime minister Nouri al Maliki in March Saudi Arabia along with Qatar provided political financial and media support to terrorists against the Iraqi government [ ] On March Saudi Arabia spearheading a coalition of Sunni Muslim states [ ] started a military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh who was deposed in the Arab Spring uprisings [ ] As of together with Qatar and Turkey Saudi Arabia is openly supporting the Army of Conquest [ ] an umbrella group of anti government forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War that reportedly includes an al Qaeda linked al Nusra Front and another Salafi coalition known as Ahrar al Sham [ ] Following a number of incidents during the Hajj season the deadliest[ ] of which killed at least pilgrim[ ] in Mina stampede Saudi Arabia has been accused of mismanagement and focusing on increasing money revenues while neglecting pilgrims' welfare [ ] Saudi Arabia has been seen as a moderating influence in the Arab–Israeli conflict periodically putting forward a peace plan between Israel and the Palestinians and condemning Hezbollah [ ] Following the Arab Spring Saudi Arabia offered asylum to deposed President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali of Tunisia and King Abdullah telephoned President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt prior to his deposition to offer his support [ ] In early relations with Qatar became strained over its support for the Muslim Brotherhood and Saudi Arabia's belief that Qatar was interfering in its affairs In August both countries appeared to be exploring ways of ending the rift [ ] Military Main article: Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia Further information: Al Yamamah arms deal and Saudi Arabian led intervention in Yemen Royal Saudi Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon and Sikorsky UH Black Hawk The Frigate Al Makkah in the Red Sea belong to the Saudi Arabia's Royal Navy Saudi Arabia has one of the highest percentages of military expenditure in the world spending more than % of its GDP in its military The Saudi military consists of the Royal Saudi Land Forces the Royal Saudi Air Force the Royal Saudi Navy the Royal Saudi Air Defense the Saudi Arabian National Guard SANG an independent military force and paramilitary forces totaling nearly active duty personnel In the armed forces had the following personnel: the army ; the air force ; air defense ; the navy including marines ; and the SANG had active soldiers and tribal levies [ ] In addition there is an Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah military intelligence service The kingdom has a long standing military relationship with Pakistan it has long been speculated that Saudi Arabia secretly funded Pakistan's atomic bomb programme and seeks to purchase atomic weapons from Pakistan in near future [ ][ ] The SANG is not a reserve but a fully operational front line force and originated out of Ibn Saud's tribal military religious force the Ikhwan Its modern existence however is attributable to it being effectively Abdullah's private army since the s and unlike the rest of the armed forces is independent of the Ministry of Defense and Aviation The SANG has been a counterbalance to the Sudairi faction in the royal family: The late prince Sultan former Minister of Defense and Aviation was one of the so called 'Sudairi Seven' and controlled the remainder of the armed forces until his death in [ ] Saudi and U S troops train in December Spending on defense and security has increased significantly since the mid s and was about US$ billion in Saudi Arabia ranks among the top in the world in government spending for its military representing about % of gross domestic product in Its modern high technology arsenal makes Saudi Arabia among the world's most densely armed nations with its military equipment being supplied primarily by the US France and Britain [ ] The United States sold more than $ billion in military hardware between and to the Saudi military [ ] On October the U S State Department notified Congress of its intention to make the biggest arms sale in American history—an estimated $ billion purchase by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The package represents a considerable improvement in the offensive capability of the Saudi armed forces [ ] saw Saudi military spending climb to $ bn overtaking that of the UK France and Japan to place fourth globally [ ] The United Kingdom has also been a major supplier of military equipment to Saudi Arabia since [ ] Since the UK has supplied military aircraft—notably the Tornado and Eurofighter Typhoon combat aircraft—and other equipment as part of the long term Al Yamamah arms deal estimated to have been worth £ billion by and thought to be worth a further £ billion [ ] In May British defence giant BAE signed a £ bn $ bn deal to supply Hawk trainer jets to Saudi Arabia [ ] According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute SIPRI in – Saudi Arabia became the world's second largest arms importer receiving four times more major arms than in – Major imports in – included combat aircraft from the UK combat helicopters from the USA tanker aircraft from Spain and over armoured vehicles from Canada Saudi Arabia has a long list of outstanding orders for arms including more combat aircraft from the UK combat aircraft from the USA and a large number of armoured vehicles from Canada [ ] Saudi Arabia received per cent of UK arms exports in – [ ] France authorized $ billion in weapons sales to Saudi Arabia in alone [ ] The $ billion arms deal with Saudi Arabia is believed to be the largest arms sale in Canadian history [ ] In Saudi Arabia signed a billion dollar arms deal with the United States Saudi Arabia topography Saudi Arabia's Köppen climate classification map[ ] is based on native vegetation temperature precipitation and their seasonality BWh Hot desert BWk Cold desert BSh Hot semi arid BSk Cold semi arid Geography Main articles: Geography of Saudi Arabia and Wildlife of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia occupies about % of the Arabian Peninsula the world's largest peninsula [ ] lying between latitudes ° and ° N and longitudes ° and ° E Because the country's southern borders with the United Arab Emirates and Oman are not precisely marked the exact size of the country is undefined [ ] The CIA World Factbook estimates km sq mi and lists Saudi Arabia as the world's th largest state [ ] It is geographically the largest country in the Arabian Plate [ ] Saudi Arabia's geography is dominated by the Arabian Desert associated semi desert and shrubland see satellite image and several mountain ranges and highlands It is in fact a number of linked deserts and includes the km sq mi Rub' al Khali "Empty Quarter" in the southeastern part of the country the world's largest contiguous sand desert [ ][ ] There are a few lakes in the country but no permanent rivers however wadis are very numerous The fertile areas are to be found in the alluvial deposits in wadis basins and oases [ ] The main topographical feature is the central plateau which rises abruptly from the Red Sea and gradually descends into the Nejd and toward the Persian Gulf On the Red Sea coast there is a narrow coastal plain known as the Tihamah parallel to which runs an imposing escarpment The southwest province of Asir is mountainous and contains the m ft Mount Sawda which is the highest point in the country [ ] Except for the southwestern province of Asir Saudi Arabia has a desert climate with very high day time temperatures and a sharp temperature drop at night Average summer temperatures are around °F °C but can be as high as °F °C In the winter the temperature rarely drops below °F °C In the spring and autumn the heat is temperate temperatures average around °F °C Annual rainfall is extremely low The Asir region differs in that it is influenced by the Indian Ocean monsoons usually occurring between October and March An average of mm in of rainfall occurs during this period that is about % of the annual precipitation [ ] Animals The Arabian Oryx are found in the deserts they are endangered animals The famous Arabian horse is native to Arabia and an important element of traditional Arabian folklore Animal life includes Arabian leopard Arabian wolves striped hyenas mongooses baboons hares sand cats and jerboas Animals such as gazelles oryx leopards and cheetahs were relatively numerous until the th century when extensive hunting reduced these animals almost to extinction Birds include falcons which are caught and trained for hunting eagles hawks vultures sandgrouse bulbuls etc There are several species of snakes many of which are venomous Saudi Arabia is home to a rich marine life The Red Sea in particular is a rich and diverse ecosystem More than species of fish[ ] have been recorded in the Red Sea and around % of these are found nowhere else [ ] This also includes species of deepwater fish [ ] Red Sea coral and marine fish The rich diversity is in part due to the km mi of coral reef extending along its coastline; these fringing reefs are – years old and are largely formed of stony acropora and porites corals The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders such as the Blue Hole Red Sea at Dahab These coastal reefs are also visited by pelagic species of Red Sea fish including some of the species of shark The Red Sea also contains many offshore reefs including several true atolls Many of the unusual offshore reef formations defy classic i e Darwinian coral reef classification schemes and are generally attributed to the high levels of tectonic activity that characterize the area Domesticated animals include the legendary Arabian horse Arabian camel sheep goats cows donkeys chickens etc Reflecting the country's dominant desert conditions Saudi Arabia's plant life mostly consists of herbs plants and shrubs that require little water The date palm Phoenix dactylifera is widespread [ ] Administrative divisions Main articles: Regions of Saudi Arabia and Governorates of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia is divided into regions[ ] Arabic: مناطق إدارية‎‎; manatiq idāriyya sing منطقة إدارية; mintaqah idariyya The regions are further divided into governorates Arabic: محافظات‎‎; muhafazat sing محافظة; muhafazah This number includes the regional capitals which have a different status as municipalities Arabic: أمانة‎‎; amanah headed by mayors Arabic: أمين‎‎; amin The governorates are further sudivided into sub governorates Arabic: مراكز‎‎; marakiz sing مركز; markaz Tabuk Bahah —– Jawf Madinah Makkah Jizan — Ha'il Northern Borders Asir Qasim Riyadh Najran Eastern Province The regions of Saudi Arabia Cities v t e افضل شركة تصميم مواقع في السعودية افضل شركة تصميم مواقع في السعودية افضل شركة تصميم مواقع في السعودية افضل شركة تصميم مواقع في السعودية

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افضل شركة تصميم مواقع في السعودية

افضل شركة تصميم مواقع في السعودية

افضل شركة تصميم مواقع في السعودية

افضل شركة تصميم مواقع في السعودية

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افضل شركة تصميم مواقع في السعودية

افضل شركة تصميم مواقع في السعودية

افضل شركة تصميم مواقع في السعودية

افضل شركة تصميم مواقع في السعودية

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